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By: Cory Yroc


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quick facts




Compound Name: Propane
IUPAC Name: Propane
Chemical Formula: C3H8
Molar Mass: 44.1 g mol−1
Appearance: Colorless Gas
Density: 1.83 kg/m3, gas
583 kg/m3, liquid
Melting Point: −187.6 °C (85.5 K)
Boiling Point: −42.09 °C (231.1 K)
Solubility in Water: 0.04 g/L (0 °C)
Isomers: None


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basic info


Propane a three-carbon alkane, has the ability to be compressed into a transportable liquid, but is normally a gas. It comes from other petroleum products during natural gas or oil processing. Common uses for propane are: =
  • engines
    • Advantages
      • Average cost 50% less than gasoline
      • You'll stop polluting
      • Doesn’t build up in engine, spark plugs will breathe easier
      • Same Performance
      • Easy switch
    • Disadvantages
      • Costs involved in the switch
      • Fewer stations carry propane
      • Heavier Wallet driving around with propane
  • oxy-gas torches
    • oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.
  • barbecues, portable stoves
    • Advatages
      • Save time
      • Cooks evenly
      • Easy to clean
      • Better for non-beef
      • Teaching tool
      • Cook
  • residential central heating
    • Advantages
      • its clean-burning attributes
      • its lower cost in comparison with other common heating fuels
A mixture of butane with propane, is mostly used as vehicle fuel. This is commonly known as LPG or LP gas (liquefied petroleum gas). It also may obtain small amounts of butylene and/or propylene. In case of a gas leak, an odorant such as thiophene or ethanethiol is put in so you can smell it.



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History




In 1910, Dr. Walter O. Snelling of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, was the first to identify propane as a volatile component in gasoline. The New York Times said this about Dr. Snelling’s work with liquefied gas “a steel bottle will carry enough gas to light an ordinary home for three weeks.” The potential danger of the lighter hydrocarbons caused them to be known as “wild” because of the high vapor pressures of the un refined gasoline. During this time Dr. Snelling, with help from Frank P. Peterson, Chester Kerr and Arthur Kerr, they created ways to liquefy the LP gases while refining the natural gasoline. Together they created the first commercial marketer of propane, American Gasol Company. By 1911, Dr. Snelling had produced almost pure propane, and on March 25, 1913 his method of producing and processing Liquefied Petroleum was given patent #1,056,845. Patented in 1912, Frank Peterson had a separate method for producing Liquefied Petroleum. LP gas in the 1920s increased production. 1922, the first recorded production totaled 223,000 gallons of LP gas. LP gas marketed production over one million gallons, by 1935 LP gas way over 50 million gallons. A big year for the sale of LP gas sales was 1945, this year was the very first year that LP gas reached over one billion gallons marketed. Over 60% of all American homes had either propane or natural gas for cooking. One thousand propane-fueled buses were ordered by the Chicago Transit Authority, and sales in the U.S. had reached seven billion gallons annually in 1958. “In 2004 it was reported to be a growing $8-billion to $10-billion industry with over 15 billion gallons of propane being used annually in the U.S.”







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chemical properties/reaction





Like other alkanes, propane will have a __combustion__ reaction. when oxygen is not obtained then propane will burn and form __carbon dioxide__ and water.
C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + heat
propane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
Incomplete combustion happens when not enough oxygen is around to form a complete combustion. And protane will burn and form water __carbon monoxide__, __carbon dioxide__, and __carbon__.
2 C3H8 + 7 O2 2 CO2 + 2 CO + 2 C + 8 H2O + heat
Propane + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Carbon Monoxide + Carbon + Water
Unlike natural gas, propane is about 1.5 times as dense than air is. Raw propane will sink and pool at the floor. When propane flashes to a vapor and appears as white it is at its atmospheric pressure. The moisture condensing from air makes it white. Propane will produce 50 MJ/kg, if it combusts properly. On a __normal cubic meter__ of propane the __gross heat of combustion__ is around 91 megajules. Propane combustion is cleanor than a gas combustion




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structure




  • Type of Bonding
    • Propane is comprised of carbon and hydrogen
    • These are all non-metals
    • Propane is a Covalent Bond(carbons and hydrogens form covalent bonds
  • Percentage Composition by Number of Atoms
    • Carbon - 3/11*100=27%
    • Hydrogen - 8/11*100 = 73%
  • Percentage Composition by Mass
    • 3 mol C* (12.01)=(36.03)/(44.10)=81.7%
    • 8 mol H* (1.01)=(8.08)/(44.10)=18.3%





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To open and view the 3-D molecule of Propane Download imol and click the link above.



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==
Found and Obtained


==

Found and obtained


Hey Teacher it wont let me make this a heading


Obtain: Propane must be carefully kept away from a difficult mixture of petrochemicals which includes methane, ethane, ethene, propene, isobutane, isobutene, butadiene, pentane, and pentene, to name a few. If these are not removed, the propane or propane and butane mixture wont liquefy properly. Liquefaction at appropriate temperature and pressure is critical for the gas to be economically useful. The liquefied gas industry has established standardized specifications that LPG mixtures must conform to in order to be considered acceptable for use as fuel gas. Standardized test methodologies for evaluating these specifications are approved and published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). For example, the LPG known as "commercial propane" must have a maximum vapor pressure of 200 psig at 100°F (38°C) and can have no more than 0.0017 ounces (0.05 ml) of residual matter. Furthermore, the allowed amount of volatile residue is strictly limited, and the gas must meet established guidelines for corrosivity to copper, volatile sulfur content, and moisture. Other mixtures of propane and butane are commercially available which have slightly different target values.
Found: Propane can be found in plenty of places in the world. Propane helps fuel cars, grills, stoves, and heaters. Propane is found in petroleum.

Legacy Propane








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References