Mitochondrial Disease




What is it?

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The mitochondria makes up of every single cell within your body that contains genetic information. It's known to circulate oxygen as well as convert certain foods into energy. In result, our cells are provided with energy to function correctly. The energy being produced is known as ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). Mitochondrial diseases are an example of a lack of energy in which causes the mitochondria to fail. In this case, many children do not survive up to their prime years. This disease is more common in children than adults by far.



What does Mitochondrial Disease

Affect?

This disease affects basically all your major organs along with the rest of your body. Mitochondrial disease affects your nervous system by causing seizures, deafness, strokes, and eyesight issues. A person could have cataracts or possibly become blind. The heart can have something known as a conduction block. A person's kidneys are affected as well as liver failures. A person could experience muscle loss. The digestive tract is affected greatly. You could undergo a series of vomiting with diarrhea. Last but not least, your pancreas could develop you to have diabetes. Overall, the whole body is a target when your fighting against Mitochondrial diseases.
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..Causes..

Mitochondrial diseases are known to run through a family's genetics. The genes play a major role in this certain disease. Their function is to produce proteins in the mitochondria. The proteins produce an "assembly line" to manufacture the energy (ATP). First, the fats and glucose are drawn into the mitochondria. They are then broken down to produce electrons. At the end of the assembly line, the proteins are known as complexes. The complexes transport the electrons, which is known as the Electron Transport Chain. (Video of the Electron Transport Chain) This would create ATP synthase. ATP synthase is when an enzyme creates ATP from ADP and phosphate by using energy. The energy is basically made up of mostly protons, which is the positive charge molecules.

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*Treatment*

Mitochondrial diseases are very hard to be treated, but the risks can be reduced. Everyone is declared "biochemically different." Therefore treatment is much different for people. Physical therapy would be prescribed with enzyme or vitamin therapies. But, there are many supplements that could possibly help such as, CoenzymeQ10, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, and many other antioxidants. However, Pyruvate is very common to reduce the side effects for mitochondrial diseases.

-Types-


There are many types of Mitochondrial diseases such as:
*DAD(Diabetes Mellitus and Deafness)
*LHON(Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy)
-This occurs in young adults which happens to impair their vision.
*Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
*Leigh Disease
-This disease is very rare with great effects on the nervous systems. Some people develop this disease due to their family genetics. The mutations may lead to death. There is currently no cure for this, but scientists are hoping to determine one for future references.



((References))


http://www.mda.org/publications/mitochondrial_myopathies.html
http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/1600/1678.asp?index=6957
http://www.umdf.org/site/c.dnJEKLNqFoG/b.3042169/
http://www.en.wikipedia.org/
http://www.google.com
http://www.dentistry.leeds.ac.uk/biochem/lecture/etran/etran.htm
http://rarediseases.about.com/cs/mitochondrialdis/a/062103.htm
http://www.tsbvi.edu/Outreach/seehear/spring02/mitochondrial.htm

Pictures:

http://search.creativecommons.org/#|http://search.creativecommons.org/






--By: Michelle & Jessica