Hyperglycemia


Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. Hyperglycemia is the opposite of Hypoglycemia (which is the problem caused with Low Blood Pressure) See Alicia and Morgan's Wiki.

Symptoms

Fatigue, weight loss, poor wound healing, dry mouth, frequent thirst, frequent urination, dry or irritated skin, cardiac arrhythmia, and comas are associated with acute or chronic hyperglycemia.

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Causes


Diabetes Mellitus:

Chronic hyperglycemia is most commonly caused by diabetes mellitus. In diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia is usually caused by low insulin levels (type 1) and or resistance to insulin (type 2). Whether it is type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, it prevents the body from converting glucose into glycogen. This makes it difficult or impossible to remove excess glucose from the blood. With normal glucose levels, the total amount of glucose in the blood at any given moment should only be enough to provide the body with enough energy for 20-30 minutes. These glucose levels must be precisely maintained by the body's internal control mechanisms. When the mechanisms malfunction or fail in any way it allows glucose to rise to abnormal levels resulting in hyperglycemia.

Drugs

Certain medications increase the risk of hyperglycemia including beta blockers, epinephrine, niacin, protease inhibitors, and some anti-psychotic agents. A small administration of stimulants such as amphetamine typically produces hyperglycemia, however chronic use produces hypoglycemia.

Physiology Stress

Hyperglycemia occurs naturally during times of infection and inflammation. When the body is stressed, endogenous catecholamines are released that serve to raise the blood glucose levels. The amount of increase varies from person to person.





Effects
Temporary hyperglycemia is benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms. However, chronic hyperglycemia at levels above normal can produce a wide variety of serious complications over a period of years. This complications include but not are limited to kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina, etc .

Treatment

Acute and severe hyperglycemia can be treated by direct administration in most cases, under medical supervision.

Citations

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperglycemia
http://www.medicinenet.com/hyperglycemia/article.htm
http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html

Hyperglycemia Video




By: J.A. Adande and Matthew Perry