Chapter 22 Section 3


Functional Groups: an atom or group of atoms that is
responsible for the specific properties of organic compounds.

Classes of Organic Compounds:
-Alcohols
Organic compound in which a hydroxyl group bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl group
-Alkyl Halides
Carbon-halogen bond which are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
-Ethers
Can't form hydrogen bonds
-Aldehydes and Ketones
Aldehyde is very volatile
Obtained from the oxidation of alcohol
Ketones are very polar because of the carbonyl group
-Amines
Organic compound that contain basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair
-Amides
They are the most stable of the functional groups.
Can form peptide bonds between amino acids
-Carboxylic Acids
-Esters

Alcohols
R-OH - ol
*Contain OH functional Group

Aldehydes
R-Carbonyl-H SUFFIX (-al)

Ethers
R-O-R THIS GOES IN THE MIDDLE OF THE "R" GROUPS (-oxy-)

Ketones
R-Carbonyl-R SUFFIX (-one)

Acids
R-Carbonyl-OH SUFFIX (-oic acid)

Esters
R-Carbonyl-OR SUFFIX (-yl-oate)

Organic Acids
-COOH
-Weak acids

Amines: *Nitrogen atom bound to alkyl groups and hydrogen atoms
*Derivatives of Ammonia

Amides: *Carbonyl group with amine group

Nitriles : R-C=N